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Unlike English, which is written from left-to-right (LTR), some languages, such as Arabic and Hebrew, are written from right-to-left (RTL). When the same paragraph contains both RTL and LTR text, this is known as bidirectional text or "bidi" text for short.

Most Web browsers will correctly display bidirectional text. However, situations may arise when the browser's bidirectional algorithm results in incorrect presentation. To correct this, the bdo element allows authors to turn off the bidirectional algorithm for selected fragments of text.


  1. <p><bdo dir="ltr">?????? ???????, W3C</bdo></p>




This required attribute specifies the base direction of the element's text content. Possible values are:

  • ltr: Left-to-right text.
  • rtl: Right-to-left text.

Common core attributes

(NameTokens) This attribute assigns a class name or set of class names to an element. Any number of elements may be assigned the same class name or set of class names. Multiple class names must be separated by white space characters. Class names are typically used to apply CSS formatting rules to an element.
(ID) This attribute assigns an ID to an element. This ID must be unique in a document. This ID can be used by client-side scripts (such as JavaScript) to select elements, apply CSS formatting rules, or to build relationships between elements.
(Text) This attribute offers advisory information. Some Web browsers will display this information as tooltips. Assistive technologies may make this information available to users as additional information about the element.


Further reading